François Hollande, in the shadow of De Gaulle, talking to Angela Merkel - illustration by Ingram Pinn

In May 2012 François Hollande became France's first Socialist president since François Mitterrand.

He was elected after a campaign in which he argued that growth generation - as opposed to the German-led emphasis on austerity – would end the eurozone crisis.

French parliament debates terror reforms

Plan to modify constitution is a political minefield for Hollande

Sarkozy vows to slash French taxes

Former president lays out reform agenda to kick start campaign

Cameron hopes on Brexit deal rise

France lays down red lines but draft to go out on Tuesday

Hardline secularism will not help France

Laïcité has gained exclusivist undertones and is used to monitor Muslims, writes Sudhir Hazareesingh

France: Hollande’s travails

After reinventing himself as a ‘wartime’ leader the president has to revive the economy to win a second term

Q&A: Plan to ease France’s jobs emergency

€2bn package includes the creation of 500,000 training schemes

Missed chance to fix France’s jobs market

The political cost of tackling labour reform is rising by the year

Hollande unveils jobs ‘emergency’ plan

President keeps eye on election with package to cut unemployment

Cameron rebuffed but hopes rise on EU deal

Leaders seek to reach agreement at February summit

Climate deal: Carbon dated?

Paris accord will not solve global warming but may spur renewable energy funding and hit fossil fuels

Battle against Le Pen is far from won

Main party leaders must do much more to halt the rise of FN

Sarkozy poll win fails to silence critics

Republicans set for internal battle over party direction

French mainstream in scramble as FN rises

Older parties try to prevent historic far-right victory on Sunday

The threat posed by Le Pen in France

The National Front presents a challenge that cannot be ignored

National Front stuns Europe’s political elites

Far-right party wins 28% of vote in its best ever result

Cameron sees Syria decision as return to world stage

PM set on restoring UK’s reputation as global player

Leaders pledge billions to curb emissions

Talks tinged by anxiety amid outpouring of promises

France signals softer stance on Assad

Foreign minister sees Syrian regime joining forces against Isis

Hollande praises youth at attacks memorial

Amid heavy security president reiterates need to destroy Isis

Sarkozy swipes at multiculturalism

Ex-president veers to right with plan to bring back ‘eternal France’

Isis: Boots on the ground?

Air strikes are unlikely to dislodge Isis in Iraq and Syria, so policymakers are looking at other options

Merkel defends open-door refugee policy

Chancellor stands firm after France joins call for curbs

Turkey-Russia tensions muddy Isis fight

Downing of Russian jet highlights overlapping military operations

West sees hope of Syria deal with Moscow

Optimism nurtured by growing signs of Russia’s co-operation as its military intervention falters

Hollande steps up campaign against Isis

French president to urge US to intensify Syria military campaign

Joe Cummings illustration

François Hollande: the unlikely commander

A leader seen as indecisive now leads the fight against Isis, writes Anne-Sylvaine Chassany

From thief to jihadi linkman in two years

Intelligence fails to keep pace with militants’ swift transformations

Hollande: France is at ‘war’ with Isis

President seeks extra powers as manhunt intensifies

France launches strikes on Isis in Syria

Raqqa hit hours after vow to intensify fight against terror group

Germany and Britain are now at risk

US cannot lead fight against terrorist plan to divide Europe, says former MI6 chief John Sawers

Paris attacks: trail of terror

How events unfolded in the French capital

Attacks fuel EU migration debate

World leaders unite in their condemnation of assaults

Atrocity signals shift in Isis strategy

Jihadi group steps up level of terror with co-ordinated attacks

Global consequences of the Paris attacks

Terrorists strike at a sensitive time in the history of France and Europe

Eurozone economies see lacklustre growth

German GDP expansion slows to 0.3% but France takes off again

EU alert on Spain and France budget target

Madrid expected to miss fiscal limit by more than expected

Daimler plant up against French labour taboo

Workers support longer hours but unions stand in the way

France urges UK precision on EU reforms

Exasperation at lack of detail on renegotiation

Perplexing failure of EU’s centre-left

Ultimate crisis of global capitalism was delivered on a plate and they did not know what to do

Hollande seeks growth with tax breaks

French president ramps up public spending cuts