François Hollande, in the shadow of De Gaulle, talking to Angela Merkel - illustration by Ingram Pinn

In May 2012 François Hollande became France's first Socialist president since François Mitterrand.

He was elected after a campaign in which he argued that growth generation - as opposed to the German-led emphasis on austerity – would end the eurozone crisis.

France urges UK precision on EU reforms

Exasperation at lack of detail on renegotiation

Perplexing failure of EU’s centre-left

Ultimate crisis of global capitalism was delivered on a plate and they did not know what to do

Hollande seeks growth with tax breaks

French president ramps up public spending cuts

Hollande backs reform of labour laws

French president gives go-ahead for bill to simplify rules

Sarkozy and private lives of presidents

Before his presidency, the head of state was not tabloid fodder, writes Anne-Sylvaine Chassany

Merkel and Hollande press EU on refugees

French and German leaders condemn Heidenau anti-migrant clashes

France and Russia settle Mistral dispute

Paris to return money for ships cancelled amid Ukraine tension

Sir Simon Fraser, departing permanent secretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Mandarin worries on diplomacy cuts crunch

Departing permanent undersecretary sees potential problems ahead

Paris eyes push for ‘eurozone government’

French leader seeks to unite pro-Europeans two years out from presidential election

The discreet redemption of Strauss-Kahn

Polls suggest DSK’s personal affairs are no barrier to his ambitions, writes Anne-Sylvaine Chassany

Hollande vows more eurozone integration

France to propose ‘economic government’ and common budget

French comeback exposes eurozone rift

Unresolved tensions remain between France and Germany, writes Daniela Schwarzer

Hollande seeks role as Greece’s saviour

French president has emerged as a tireless advocate for Athens

‘France in the Hollande Presidency’

Mr Normal and the decline of the Fifth Republic

Emission vows boost climate deal hopes

US, Brazil, China and South Korea promise to curb carbon output

Hollande wades into Paris Uber dispute

French president condemns clashes but labels car service ‘illegal’

France slams US over spying claims

Elysée summons ambassador amid ‘unacceptable facts’

US ‘tapped’ French leaders’ phones

White House silent on NSA spying claims

Valls in storm over football final trip

French PM defends visit to football match at taxpayers’ expense

Hollande opts for temporary jobs

Initiatives avoid reform of long-term labour contract

Hollande cunning tames unruly Socialists

Party discipline demonstrates president’s adroit manoeuvring

G7 agrees to phase out fossil fuels

Goal set to cut emissions by up to 70% of 2010 levels by 2050

Greek bailout monitors hold crisis summit

IMF, EU and ECB meet to thrash out differences on Athens deal

Expert warns on UK defence spending claim

Rounding up could still leave shortfall of £1bn

Sarkozy rebrands UMP ‘Les Republicains’

Latest step in former French president’s plan to return to power

EU leaders put limits on help for Cameron

UK prime minister gets clearer idea of possible changes

Rhetoric hardens as Cameron tours EU

British PM can expect only limited concessions

Cameron launches European charm offensive

PM embarks on two-day tour to win support for proposals

Russia rejects French Mistral carriers

Moscow to build own vessels — but wants money back

EDF seeks to cut holiday entitlement

Effort to roll back leave strikes at France’s 35-hour week

Merkel and Hollande set pollution goal

Leaders among first to aim for zero-emissions target

Germany urges Ukraine to fulfil ceasefire

EU leaders highlight fears of renewed Russian aggression

Hollande reveals plans to lift investment

Move aims to appease critics within socialist party

Defeat highlights French Socialist splits

Ruling party pays high political price for economic reforms

Local elections deal blow to Hollande

France’s centre-right UMP party and allies make large gains

A stumble in the march of the populists

Local elections in France and Spain show mainstream parties can win

FN pushes on as French Socialists struggle

Marine Le Pen is seeking to bolster her power in local polls

EU foreign policy chief to visit Cuba

Federica Mogherini is highest Brussels official to visit Cuba in years

Ingram Pinn illustration

Rays of sunlight amid Europe’s gloom

German wage agreements ought to help prevent deflation, writes Tony Barber

Joe Cummings illustration

Emmanuel Macron, French economy minister

The politician is rewriting the rule book for country’s socialism, writes Anne-Sylvaine Chassany