François Hollande, in the shadow of De Gaulle, talking to Angela Merkel - illustration by Ingram Pinn

In May 2012 François Hollande became France's first Socialist president since François Mitterrand.

He was elected after a campaign in which he argued that growth generation - as opposed to the German-led emphasis on austerity – would end the eurozone crisis.

Rhetoric hardens as Cameron tours EU

British PM can expect only limited concessions

Cameron launches European charm offensive

PM embarks on two-day tour to win support for proposals

Russia rejects French Mistral carriers

Moscow to build own vessels — but wants money back

EDF seeks to cut holiday entitlement

Effort to roll back leave strikes at France’s 35-hour week

Merkel and Hollande set pollution goal

Leaders among first to aim for zero-emissions target

Germany urges Ukraine to fulfil ceasefire

EU leaders highlight fears of renewed Russian aggression

Hollande reveals plans to lift investment

Move aims to appease critics within socialist party

Defeat highlights French Socialist splits

Ruling party pays high political price for economic reforms

Local elections deal blow to Hollande

France’s centre-right UMP party and allies make large gains

A stumble in the march of the populists

Local elections in France and Spain show mainstream parties can win

FN pushes on as French Socialists struggle

Marine Le Pen is seeking to bolster her power in local polls

EU foreign policy chief to visit Cuba

Federica Mogherini is highest Brussels official to visit Cuba in years

Ingram Pinn illustration

Rays of sunlight amid Europe’s gloom

German wage agreements ought to help prevent deflation, writes Tony Barber

Joe Cummings illustration

Emmanuel Macron, French economy minister

The politician is rewriting the rule book for country’s socialism, writes Anne-Sylvaine Chassany

French government survives vote

Failure of no-confidence motion allows economic reforms to proceed

France forces through economic reforms

Amid turmoil in parliament, Valls has emerged as tough moderniser

Paris rams through reforms as left revolts

Move follows rebellion by Socialist MPs

Leaders agree Ukraine ceasefire

Truce to take effect from midnight on Saturday

Fighting rages on eve of Ukraine talks

Rebels attack Kramatorsk as state forces make gains near Mariupol

Unexpected chance for French president

Hollande has had a strong start to 2015 and should make use of it

Fears rise on Czech leader’s Russia view

Prague officials concerned over support for Putin

Europe pushes ahead with Ukraine peace talks

Merkel flies to Washington for Obama meeting

Germany opposes calls for west to arm Ukraine

US pours scorn on European efforts to engage with Putin

Merkel rolls dice to seek Ukraine truce

US declines to back German leader and doubts any deal will hold

Britain ‘irrelevant’ in Ukraine solution

Downing Street rejects criticism over foreign policy

Merkel and Hollande fly to Kiev and Moscow

Diplomatic push on Ukraine to involve Putin talks

Hollande and Renzi only partly back Greece

France supports better bailout deal but not debt write-off

Western leaders launch talks in Ukraine

Kerry meets Poroshenko as west seeks fresh diplomatic solution

World leaders pay respects to Abdullah

Obama cuts short his visit to India to meet King Salman

France: Show of leadership

Hollande wins praise for his determination after the Paris attacks but faces tough tasks

Netanyahu denies Paris cynicism

Israeli PM plays down accusations that French trip was political

Hebdo killer suspect surrenders to police

Photos released of other two suspects after 12 shot dead

Hollande prioritises growth above 1%

French president reiterates vow to avoid further tax increases

Piketty rejects Légion d’Honneur award

Author says it is not for governments to ‘decide who is honourable’

France calls for calm after attacks

No evidence linking three violent incidents, says PM

Britain looks for EU treaty shortcuts

Cameron warned of political impossibility of referendum strategy

Cameron aims for ‘sweet spot’ in EU deal timing

PM sees his chance in gap between French and German polls

Struggle for reform in France and Italy

Hollande and Renzi must continue to push on with liberalisation

Hollande meets Putin in Moscow

French president makes unexpected stopover to discuss Ukraine crisis

Hollande needs to press his reset button

France’s president has become a specialist of communications setbacks, writes Adam Thomson