Vladimir Putin illustration by Ingram Pinn

Vladimir Putin commenced his second term as president of Russia in May 2012, having already served in the role between 2000 and 2008.

A former KGB agent in East Germany from 1985 to 1990, he began his political career in Moscow in 1996, eventually including two stints as prime minister - 1999 to 2000 and 2008 to 2012.

Trump to ‘shake rust’ off foreign policy

Contradictions remain in Republican front-runner’s approach

Black Wind, White Snow: The Rise of Russia’s New Nationalism, by Charles Clover

‘Black Wind, White Snow’, by Charles Clover

How a theory of Russian history that rejects the west came to inspire Putin’s Kremlin. Review by Geoffrey Hosking

Obama to back UK staying in EU on London visit

President adds voice to growing international backing for Remain campaign

Kiev hints at Russia deal to free pilot

Savchenko sentenced last month to 22 years in Russian jail

Refugee crisis unsettles ‘Russia-Germans’

Move to Alternative for Germany party adds to complexity of nation’s fragmenting political landscape

Ukraine must stick to path of reform

The new government appears less pro-change than its predecessor

Oil price optimism grows as Brent hits 2016 high

Trading houses hope to draw line under the Big Drop

Low oil prices will not last, Sechin says

Brent crude climbs to 2016 peak ahead of Doha producer meeting

Dutch vote knocks EU enlargement hopes

Result signals rising insularity and rejection of immigration

Vladimir Putin
©FT montage; Getty Images

Russia: Putin’s balance sheet

Sanctions and a falling oil price threaten to derail economic progress amid fears of a return to the chaos of the 1990s

Putin rejects cellist money trail claim

President rails at US plot against Russian harmony

Dutch chagrin for Europe and Ukraine

Putin would applaud the loudest if referendum hurt EU ties with Kiev

©Dreamstime; Bloomberg

Panama Papers: key revelations so far

Leak shines rare light on murky world of offshore finance

Putin seals authority with new national guard

Surprise creation of 350,000-plus force marks shift in security

©Dreamstime; Bloomberg

Panama Papers reveal blacklist entities

Documents include 33 people and entities on US sanctions list

World order reshaped by Putin’s ambition

The image of Russia as weak and withdrawn from the international arena is wrong, writes Eugene Rumer

Nagorno-Karabakh army artillerymen prepare to open fire from a howitzer on positions in Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan, Tuesday, April 5, 2016. Azerbaijan forces and separatist forces in Nagorno-Karabakh agreed on a cease-fire Tuesday following three days of the heaviest fighting in the region since 1994, the Azeri defense ministry announced. (Vahan Stepanyan/PAN Photo via AP)

Ceasefire agreed in Nagorno-Karabakh

Deal follows worst fighting in more than 20 years

Panama Papers: Cellist and $2bn web

Roldugin’s offshore funds raise questions about Putin friendship

Panama Papers: Politicians need rules

Broader question is how leaders should behave both in office and after, writes John Gapper

Panama leak highlights elite’s use of tax havens

Release of documents reverberates from Putin’s inner circle to Iceland and Fifa

Ed Luce column
©Matt Kenyon

The self-induced twilight of the west

Obama’s presidency has overseen a waning of US interest in Europe

Justice for victims of Radovan Karadzic

The Bosnian Serb leader’s conviction may prove a high-water mark

Russia and US to renew Syria peace push

Assad the stumbling block despite upbeat Kerry-Putin meeting

Russia’s challenge over Avtovaz problems

Removal of Bo Andersson shows trouble with supplier and workforce reforms

Vitol and Gunvor report stellar profits

Both oil traders announce net income of more than $1.2bn for 2015

Torbjorn Tornqvist Gunvor

Gunvor reports record 2015 profits

Favourable market conditions and Russian asset sale boost results

Ukraine pilot’s trial is abuse of justice

Russia should hand back Savchenko and withdraw from the Donbass

Russia follows a clear strategy in Syria

Few in Moscow believe that the Assad regime will last long without changes, writes Fyodor Lukyanov

Ingram Pinn cartoon of President Barack Obama and US foreign policy
©Ingram Pinn

Fatalism taints the Obama doctrine

To observe that the US cannot solve every problem should not be to conclude it is powerless

Putin’s hollow victory in Syria

Russia’s military intervention has done little to halt the civil war

Russia cuts its losses in Syria

Moscow has made it clear that its Hmeymim air base in Syria will be a permanent facility

Putin’s Syrian exit hailed in Russia

Kremlin spins success despite doubts over campaign’s goals

Russia withdrawal catches US off guard

Putin’s drawdown plan appears aimed at pressuring ally Assad

Putin keeps the west guessing in Syria

What is the Kremlin’s game now? The Russian leader might conclude that Assad has no long-term future

Russia prepares for partial Syria pullout

Defence ministry silent on strength of forces to remain on the ground

Putin uses the Ukraine playbook in Syria

The Russian leader has shown that a short, sharp intervention has merits, writes James Blitz

Putin orders Russian pullout from Syria

Moscow says it is time to focus on peace talks

Entente between Turkey and Russia is over

In modern times, relations have been at the very least correct, often warm, writes Norman Stone

Ex-Kremlin aide died of blunt force trauma

Post-mortem result fuels speculation

Ingram Pinn illustration
©Ingram Pinn

Trump has friends across the Atlantic

Populists replace argument with blame, facts with prejudice