Angela MerkelAngela Merkel was appointed Germany’s first female chancellor in 2005, having been leader of centre-right Christian Democratic Union since 2000.

She was formerly a research physicist and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 entered politics serving in East Germany's first – and last – freely elected government.

From Putin’s parallel universe the crisis looks bright

The president will see an opportunity to tighten his grip on business, writes Eugene Rumer

EU leaders hold firm on Russia sanctions

Summit communiqué signals steady pressure over aggression in Ukraine

US-Europe trade deal stuck on launch pad

Officials resigned to lack of agreement before 2016

Britain looks for EU treaty shortcuts

Cameron warned of political impossibility of referendum strategy

Cameron aims for ‘sweet spot’ in EU deal timing

PM sees his chance in gap between French and German polls

Merkel eyes relief for German taxpayers

Chancellor pledges to create ‘financial room to manoeuvre’

Ingram Pinn illustration

Europe’s lonely and reluctant hegemon

Berlin must broaden its outlook and applaud domestic demand

Merkel accuses Putin of ‘creating problems’

German concern over Russian actions beyond Ukraine

The German club of Putin understanders

Those seen as apologists for the Russian president are finding life is complicated

Merkel faces Russia sanctions challenge

German chancellor has hard task to maintain hard-won consensus

Cameron faces hard grind over immigration

UK prime minister must convince the public, Tory party and EU

Germany acts on Russia’s Balkan designs

Putin’s visit to Serbia viewed as mission to extend influence

Nuclear is exception to Germany’s rule

The intricate system for preventing political accidents has been bypassed, writes Eva Ladipo

Merkel offers Russia trade olive branch

German chancellor aims to ease tensions with more talks

UK and Germany reach deal over patent box

Row had overshadowed efforts to crack down on tax avoidance

Berlin marks 25 years since fall of Wall

German reunification showed ‘dreams can come true’ says Merkel

Hard stare: political graffiti in Bristol pays homage to Paddington, the fictional bear from darkest Peru
©Phil Wills

EU migrants contribute £20bn to Britain

Taxes paid heavily outweigh state benefits received

Merkel considers British exit from EU

Chancellor says UK is approaching ‘point of no return’

Cameron’s EU opt outs to keep Britain in

UK PM’s growing aggression is likely to make for tricky talks with incoming commission president

Forecasts sap hopes for German economy

Sixth consecutive monthly fall in Ifo index

Towns ‘swamped’ by migrants, says Fallon

Merkel deals blow to Tory hopes of limiting movement in EU

Bring Germany’s left in from the cold

Die Linke needs to change, but it is not the devil incarnate

Moscow and Kiev talks end in an impasse

Moody’s downgrades Russia over continuing situation in Ukraine

Putin’s nightcap overshadows summit

Russian leader drops in on Berlusconi before talks with Poroshenko

Merkel and Renzi clash on growth

German chancellor seems intent on calming financial markets

Germany slashes its economic forecasts

Concerns over impact of eurozone stagnation

Renzi victory as Senate backs reforms

Italy’s upper house approves new measures to boost employment

The costly muddle of German energy policy

Merkel’s decision to phase out nuclear power has been a huge mistake

Red Cross worker killed in Donetsk shelling

Merkel urges Putin to calm rebels as fighting re-escalates

Hollande warns France of spending cuts

Berlin puts pressure on Paris to adopt robust reforms

German Jews are ‘a miracle’ says Merkel

Old prejudices survive and new grievances smoulder

Eurosceptics outflank moderate Merkel

Rise of Germany’s new eurosceptic party alarms conservatives

German business grapples with energy costs

Shift to clean energy generates costly surcharges for Mittelstand companies

Germany struggles to match Silicon Valley

Industrial powerhouse risks letting others build ‘internet of things’

Berlin rejects calls for eurobonds

Commerzbank appeal earns immediate rebuke from Germany

Western states debate arming Ukraine

Democrats press Obama as he departs for Nato summit

German eurosceptics win Saxony seats

Alternative für Deutschland gains first places in regional assembly

German business attacks ‘complacent’ Berlin

FT Series: Teutonic shifts - Warnings over risk to competitiveness

Frontline states’ fears on Russia realised

Baltic nations and Poland wanted less diplomatic approach

Three critical tests for Nato leaders

Ukraine, the Middle East and Afghanistan test alliance’s future, writes Nicholas Burns