Angela MerkelAngela Merkel was appointed Germany’s first female chancellor in 2005, having been leader of centre-right Christian Democratic Union since 2000.

She was formerly a research physicist and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 entered politics serving in East Germany's first – and last – freely elected government.

Merkel ally doubts Hollande’s reforms

Oettinger says French budget does not deliver enough cuts

UK and Germany reach deal over patent box

Row had overshadowed efforts to crack down on tax avoidance

Berlin marks 25 years since fall of Wall

German reunification showed ‘dreams can come true’ says Merkel

Hard stare: political graffiti in Bristol pays homage to Paddington, the fictional bear from darkest Peru
©Phil Wills

EU migrants contribute £20bn to Britain

Taxes paid heavily outweigh state benefits received

Merkel considers British exit from EU

Chancellor says UK is approaching ‘point of no return’

Cameron’s EU opt outs to keep Britain in

UK PM’s growing aggression is likely to make for tricky talks with incoming commission president

Forecasts sap hopes for German economy

Sixth consecutive monthly fall in Ifo index

Towns ‘swamped’ by migrants, says Fallon

Merkel deals blow to Tory hopes of limiting movement in EU

Bring Germany’s left in from the cold

Die Linke needs to change, but it is not the devil incarnate

Moscow and Kiev talks end in an impasse

Moody’s downgrades Russia over continuing situation in Ukraine

Putin’s nightcap overshadows summit

Russian leader drops in on Berlusconi before talks with Poroshenko

Merkel and Renzi clash on growth

German chancellor seems intent on calming financial markets

Germany slashes its economic forecasts

Concerns over impact of eurozone stagnation

Renzi victory as Senate backs reforms

Italy’s upper house approves new measures to boost employment

The costly muddle of German energy policy

Merkel’s decision to phase out nuclear power has been a huge mistake

Red Cross worker killed in Donetsk shelling

Merkel urges Putin to calm rebels as fighting re-escalates

Hollande warns France of spending cuts

Berlin puts pressure on Paris to adopt robust reforms

German Jews are ‘a miracle’ says Merkel

Old prejudices survive and new grievances smoulder

Eurosceptics outflank moderate Merkel

Rise of Germany’s new eurosceptic party alarms conservatives

German business grapples with energy costs

Shift to clean energy generates costly surcharges for Mittelstand companies

Germany struggles to match Silicon Valley

Industrial powerhouse risks letting others build ‘internet of things’

Berlin rejects calls for eurobonds

Commerzbank appeal earns immediate rebuke from Germany

Western states debate arming Ukraine

Democrats press Obama as he departs for Nato summit

German eurosceptics win Saxony seats

Alternative für Deutschland gains first places in regional assembly

German business attacks ‘complacent’ Berlin

FT Series: Teutonic shifts - Warnings over risk to competitiveness

Frontline states’ fears on Russia realised

Baltic nations and Poland wanted less diplomatic approach

Three critical tests for Nato leaders

Ukraine, the Middle East and Afghanistan test alliance’s future, writes Nicholas Burns

EU to expand Russia sanctions in a week

Time running out to prevent full-scale war, says Poroshenko

Tusk named as president of European Council

Poland’s prime minister wins unanimous support

Merkel to push for further Russia penalties

Spectre raised of deeper trade war with Moscow

Poland and Denmark vie for EU top job

Thorning-Schmidt and Tusk emerge as frontrunners

Cameron backs Tusk for EU council job

U-turn by UK leader after pair forge Ukraine links

Hollande replaces firebrand minister

French president brings in reformist Macron

Merkel backs Guindos as eurogroup chair

Selection would be marked victory for Madrid

Germany suggests federal solution for Ukraine

German vice-chancellor calls for negotiation with Russia as Merkel flies to Kiev

Convoy returns to Russia after Lugansk aid drop

Russian vehicles had entered Ukraine on Friday without permission

Convoy returns to Russia after Lugansk aid drop

Russian vehicles had entered Ukraine on Friday without permission

Berlin defensive on Turkey spying claims

German ambassador in Ankara summoned by Turkey’s foreign ministry

Ingram Pinn illustration

Merkel is willing to pay for world stability

Russia expected Germany to resist action that would affect its exporters. It was wrong

Ukrainian army edges closer to Donetsk

Pro-Russian rebels rule out ceasefire with Ukrainian forces