Angela MerkelAngela Merkel was appointed Germany’s first female chancellor in 2005, having been leader of centre-right Christian Democratic Union since 2000.

She was formerly a research physicist and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 entered politics serving in East Germany's first – and last – freely elected government.

Chart: Lufthansa data

Lufthansa rides out strikes to cut costs

Pay agreement with ground staff suggests management could secure deals with pilots and cabin crew

EU’s desperate migrants deal with Turkey

Pact with Ankara is justified to help control the flow of refugees

We deride Le Pen and Trump at our peril

The rise of political extremists says something disturbing about liberal democracy in the west

Germany to send troops against Isis

Obama makes impromptu visit to Bataclan concert hall in Paris

Eastern Europe set for Berlin pipeline clash

Fears Nord Stream 2 will increase dependence on Gazprom

Merkel defends open-door refugee policy

Chancellor stands firm after France joins call for curbs

German Jewish leader urges refugee quota

Control intake to facilitate integration, says community head

Political diary

François Hollande’s week of intense shuttle diplomacy

EU bows deeply to Erdogan over migrants

Turkey’s president has been showered with goodies in a desperate attempt to find a solution

Merkel faces down refugee policy critics

Officials say 900,000 migrants have been registered this year

Paris attacks test Merkel’s resolve

Chancellor battles to keep Germany open to Syrian refugees

Germany and Britain are now at risk

US cannot lead fight against terrorist plan to divide Europe, says former MI6 chief John Sawers

Paris attacks spur border control calls

Poland and Slovakia warn of security risks

Attacks fuel EU migration debate

World leaders unite in their condemnation of assaults

Global consequences of the Paris attacks

Terrorists strike at a sensitive time in the history of France and Europe

Merkel looks vulnerable in migrant fallout

German leader appears unusually mortal amid coalition dissent

Schäuble warns of refugee ‘avalanche’

German minister’s second attack on migrants policy in a week

Merkel toughens stance on refugees

Chancellor warns of delays to reuniting families

Merkel rejects refugee transit zones

German leader prevails over rightwing calls for tougher controls

Migrant crisis disturbs Balkan ghosts

An HDZ poll victory on Sunday would make Croatia more likely to copy Hungary’s hard line

Manga pic of Aoshima Megu

Japan G7 host drops mascot deemed sexist

Teenage Meg loses formal recognition after protests by pearl divers

Germans debate transit zones for migrants

Policy designed to weed out weak asylum claims splits coalition

EU policy helps traffickers, says Austria

Tighten external borders or prepare for internal controls, says minister

Osborne’s EU plan wins Berlin’s approval

Merkel accepts ‘justifiable concerns’

Merkel leans towards Osborne reforms

German leader says she will back some British demands

Berlin dismay over UK’s EU reform push

Ruling coalition in disarray as migrants dominate German politics

Migrants strain German political marriage

Alliance under threat as CSU takes hard line on refugee crisis

China and Germany strike renminbi deal

Deutsche Börse signs agreement with Chinese stock exchanges

Ingram Pinn illustration

If Merkel falls, Europe will unravel

She has been the rock of certainty. Without her the fractures would multiply

Austria-German tensions flare over migrants

Berlin accuses Vienna of a failure to co-ordinate border processing

Angela Merkel faces a tough balancing act between, from top, the pro-migrant sectors of German society; right-wing protesters who are a threat to her party; and the ongoing influx of migrants
©EPA; Getty Images; AP

Germany: Merkel opens door to her opponents

The chancellor’s ‘welcome Syrians’ response to migrant crisis may hasten her political demise

Illustration by Ingram Pinn

The end of the Merkel era is within sight

As the placid surface of German society is disturbed, the positives of immigration are hard to see

EU leaders to meet to stem migrant tide

Influx triggers dramatic deterioration of relations between governments

Merkel stands between triumph and failure

Chancellor must make compromises if her refugee policy is to work, writes Constanze Stelzenmüller

German migration tensions intensify

Political leaders hit out at far right after Dresden rallies

Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany speaks the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit to the at the United Nations General Assembly in New York September 25, 2015
©AFP/Getty Images

Merkel backs EU-Turkey migrant deal

German chancellor supports draft deal to slow the flow of migrants to EU

Merkel’s agony over Europe’s refugees

The migrant crisis places her under unprecedented pressure at home

Cameron asks Merkel to help fight Brexit

‘In’ campaign to be run by former M&S chief Lord Rose

PM urges Merkel to revive renegotiations

Britain’s future in Europe raised at Cameron’s birthday meeting

Angela Merkel, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany speaks the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit to the at the United Nations General Assembly in New York September 25, 2015
©AFP/Getty Images

Refugee pledge takes Merkel into unknown

Chancellor faces biggest gamble of her career as estimated 1m asylum seekers expected in Germany