Angela MerkelAngela Merkel was appointed Germany’s first female chancellor in 2005, having been leader of centre-right Christian Democratic Union since 2000.

She was formerly a research physicist and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 entered politics serving in East Germany's first – and last – freely elected government.

James Ferguson illustration

European federalism is not dead yet

If it is to happen at all, further integration will be down to necessity, writes John Thornhill

PM to meet EU leaders in quest for deal

Osborne upbeat as Cameron seeks to convey sense of progress

Georg Zeppenfeld (left) and Stephen Gould in 'Tristan und Isolde' at Bayreuth Festival. Credit: Enrico Nawrath
©Enrico Nawrath

Tristan und Isolde, Festspielhaus, Bayreuth

Katharina Wagner’s production is unsentimental and finely cast

Paris eyes push for ‘eurozone government’

French leader seeks to unite pro-Europeans two years out from presidential election

Tough tactics cement Schäuble’s influence

A bogeyman abroad, finance minister lauded at home over Greece stance

Europe’s confusion on German leadership

Eurozone is happy to back Berlin when it is wrong and resist it when it is right

Merkel signals terms for Greek debt talks

German chancellor says writedown not possible within eurozone

Greek clash sparks fears at German power

Merkel backs Schäuble over Grexit ultimatum to Athens


When an artist runs a country

Edi Rama, artist, former basketball player and now prime minister of Albania, talks to Peter Aspden

German parliament backs Greek bailout

Vote passes despite embarrassing revolt by Merkel’s own MPs

Tusk fears political contagion over Greece

EU summit chief sees danger of radicals’ tactical alliance

Schäuble puts Grexit back on the agenda

Finance minister’s comments raise tensions in Germany and EU

Merkel’s tough tactics prompt criticism

German leader under attack for intimidating Greece

One final fling for France and Germany

The faultlines on Greece are set to deepen and widen, writes François Heisbourg

Syriza set to rebel over ‘humiliation’

Greek PM likely to rely on opposition to pass sweeping reforms

German brinkmanship tests eurozone cohesion

‘We avoided the worst, but not the bad,’ says Romano Prodi

Eurozone leaders reach deal on Greece

Athens caves in to ultimatum and agrees to rush through reforms

Dawn drama sealed Greece talks

Tusk’s ultimatum as Tsipras and Merkel reached a ‘dead end’

Faultlines on display at Greece showdown

Differing visions had to be reconciled during negotiations

French comeback exposes eurozone rift

Unresolved tensions remain between France and Germany, writes Daniela Schwarzer

Offer by the Greeks should not be refused

Tsipras has capitulated. His antagonists must show magnanimity

Merkel faces ‘lose-lose’ choice on Greece

Road ahead will be unpredictable regardless of decision

Tsipras’s proposal sows division

Do not take this deal for granted — if Greece’s creditors want it to fail, they will find a way

James Ferguson illustration
©James Ferguson

Europe will pay the price for Greece

The rest of the EU should take no pleasure in Tsipras’s discomfort

The final countdown: Greece has less than a week to reach an agreement over a new bailout
©Bloomberg; AP; Dreamstime

Countdown to Grexit deadline day

The steps Athens must take to avoid crashing out of the euro

Greece given 5 days to avoid collapse

Merkel leads tough stance as summit called to decide Athens’ fate

ECB should not make it hard to reach deal

A Greek exit from the euro should be a political, not technical decision

Greece: over to EU

If debt relief had come earlier, the eurozone would not be facing this moment of truth at all

Greece votes No — now what?

Next key date is July 20, when country owes €3.5bn

James Ferguson illustration
©James Ferguson

Greece should vote for the rule of law

There remains a conviction that the future belongs to the EU’s model of shared sovereignty

Merkel takes revenge on Greek premier

German chancellor rules out talks before Sunday’s referendum

Eurozone leaders take co-ordinated gamble

Greeks have come to resent EU interference in their politics

Tsipras takes Greece to edge of precipice

With both sides indulging in blame shifting, it is hard to see a way back

PM drops aim of treaty change before vote

Renegotiation starts with low-key summit dinner presentation

Ingram Pinn illustration

Britain would not survive Brexit

It is understood in Berlin that Cameron cannot return from negotiations admitting defeat

US ‘tapped’ French leaders’ phones

White House silent on NSA spying claims

Cameron’s difficult pursuit of Germany

Berlin is key to PM’s bid to renegotiate EU membership

Merkel faces impatience on Greece

Germans willing to give chancellor more time, but not much

Greece urged to reach deal before summit

Hollande and Merkel deliver ultimatum to Tsipras

Britain in Europe: Cameron’s migrant equation

The PM believes benefit reform will persuade voters that the UK should stay in the EU, but it is proving a hard sell across Europe