Angela MerkelAngela Merkel was appointed Germany’s first female chancellor in 2005, having been leader of centre-right Christian Democratic Union since 2000.

She was formerly a research physicist and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 entered politics serving in East Germany's first – and last – freely elected government.

Eurosceptics outflank moderate Merkel

Rise of Germany’s new eurosceptic party alarms conservatives

German business grapples with energy costs

Shift to clean energy generates costly surcharges for Mittelstand companies

Germany struggles to match Silicon Valley

Industrial powerhouse risks letting others build ‘internet of things’

Berlin rejects calls for eurobonds

Commerzbank appeal earns immediate rebuke from Germany

Western states debate arming Ukraine

Democrats press Obama as he departs for Nato summit

German eurosceptics win Saxony seats

Alternative für Deutschland gains first places in regional assembly

German business attacks ‘complacent’ Berlin

FT Series: Teutonic shifts - Warnings over risk to competitiveness

Frontline states’ fears on Russia realised

Baltic nations and Poland wanted less diplomatic approach

Three critical tests for Nato leaders

Ukraine, the Middle East and Afghanistan test alliance’s future, writes Nicholas Burns

EU to expand Russia sanctions in a week

Time running out to prevent full-scale war, says Poroshenko

Tusk named as president of European Council

Poland’s prime minister wins unanimous support

Merkel to push for further Russia penalties

Spectre raised of deeper trade war with Moscow

Poland and Denmark vie for EU top job

Thorning-Schmidt and Tusk emerge as frontrunners

Cameron backs Tusk for EU council job

U-turn by UK leader after pair forge Ukraine links

Hollande replaces firebrand minister

French president brings in reformist Macron

Merkel backs Guindos as eurogroup chair

Selection would be marked victory for Madrid

Germany suggests federal solution for Ukraine

German vice-chancellor calls for negotiation with Russia as Merkel flies to Kiev

Convoy returns to Russia after Lugansk aid drop

Russian vehicles had entered Ukraine on Friday without permission

Convoy returns to Russia after Lugansk aid drop

Russian vehicles had entered Ukraine on Friday without permission

Berlin defensive on Turkey spying claims

German ambassador in Ankara summoned by Turkey’s foreign ministry

Ingram Pinn illustration

Merkel is willing to pay for world stability

Russia expected Germany to resist action that would affect its exporters. It was wrong

Ukrainian army edges closer to Donetsk

Pro-Russian rebels rule out ceasefire with Ukrainian forces

German diplomacy: Dominant by default

Strong links with Russia are putting Angela Merkel’s softly-softly policy to the test

Political spouses are best in the shadows

The idea that an adoring other half is electoral Viagra refuses to die, writes Helen Lewis

Brits and Germans let old clichés fade

As the first world war is commemorated the two former foes are enjoying more cordial relations

Merkel plays the long game with Putin

The German chancellor has decelerated the pace of sanctions but she will act, writes Beth Pond

Merkel’s sanctions rethink reflects loss of trust in Putin

Chancellor’s allies say MH17 more critical than US pressure

Putin’s next move – invade?

Europe has half-colluded in the ludicrous pretence that Russia is a concerned bystander in Ukraine

Typewriters stand against cyberspying

Berlin is reverting to an unhackable piece of hardware, writes Andrew Martin

Crash galvanises EU opinion on sanctions

EU capitals push for quicker and broader penalties on Russia

Germany win World Cup in extra time

Strike by Mario Götze sees European side triumph over Argentina

Italy accused of soft approach to Russia

Diplomats say Rome dragging feet on sanctions to placate industry

Germany’s sense of betrayal harms US ties

Fears hardening public sentiment could jeopardise co-operation

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Worst threat to euro is a lack of trust

The argument between Italy and Germany asks a question at the heart of the currency’s future

Germany investigates second spy case

Berlin searches workplace and apartment of military suspect

Renzi’s boast looks like history repeating

Italy PM could misread Merkel in the same way David Cameron did

Merkel anger at US over agent reports

Berlin threatens criminal action over spy allegations

Germany arrests ‘US double agent’

Apprehension likely to inflame tensions

Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi

Renzi hits back at Bundesbank chief

Italy’s PM says Weidmann should not interfere over budget rules

Merkel and Renzi can reshape Europe

The Italian prime minister counterbalances the German chancellor, writes Kalypso Nicolaidis