Filmed and produced by Tom Griggs, Grace Ramos, Guill Ramos. Additional footage by Reuters
In the Philippines, the jeepney is the king of the road.
These homespun vehicles originally retooled from US army Jeeps have dominated local transportation for 70 years. Drivers in other countries might decorate their vehicles, but no one does quite like the Filipinos.
Almer has been driving his jeepney between Manila Santa Ana and Rizal Park for 12 years. Carrying 60 passengers a journey earns him just 20 US dollars a day.
But Almer's livelihood is now under threat. The government of Rodrigo Duterte wants to take old jeepneys, like his, off the road to cut pollution and congestion.
What's the worst thing about living in Manila? Ask a Filipino and you'll hear one answer.
By some measures, Manila's traffic is the worst in the world. The government says that its plans for fewer routes will reduce congestion and that replacing smoky old diesels with low emission vehicles will cut pollution. Traditional jeepney makers have duly rolled out prototypes, including this all-electric vehicle from Francisco Motors.
This has been the design of the jeepney since 1947. It has been part of the Philippine history, the heritage, the culture. If we take out the classic design of the jeepney, it's just like taking away a piece of our identity.
In its Las Piñas workshop south of Manila, rival Sarao Motors is building one too, although their model feels less like a jeepney and more like a city bus.
This is the jeepney of the future, all electric, roomier inside, built to the latest standards of safety and comfort. The Philippine government, if it has its way, wants to take all the old jeepneys off the road by 2020 and replace them with new vehicles like these.
It all sounds like a great idea for hard-pressed Manileños, but that's not how Almer sees it.
It's also unclear how the government expects jeepney drivers to pay for their new vehicles.
Almer has a three-year grace period, but once his jeepney reaches the 15-year cut-off point, he may have to find another way to earn a living.