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Astronomers say there are more than 100bn planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. Potentially, some of them could be habitable by living creatures, and the laws of probability suggest that aliens should be plentiful.

After 70 years of looking systematically, we have no evidence yet of creatures great or small, intelligent or otherwise, beyond Earth. However, new techniques in looking for extraterrestrials mean we could be getting closer.

In 2015, a $100m astronomy programme called Breakthrough Listen began a project to detect artificial signals from space. It will survey a million of the stars closest to Earth, and a hundred of our nearest galaxies, in both optical and radio frequencies.

Astrobiologists, meanwhile, are searching for simple extraterrestrial life forms beneath the arid surface of Mars, in the salty oceans discovered on the moons of Jupiter and the methane and ethane lakes of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

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