Aerial view of the downtown Los Angeles skyline, The U.S. Olympic Committee's snubbed the city of Los Angeles, opting for Boston instead for the 2024 summer games. (Photo by Wally Skalij/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images)
©Wally Skalij/Los Angeles Times/Getty

Los Angeles: alternative to San Francisco

Silicon Beach is becoming more of a reality than an aspiration

Evening panorama of Brussels from Monts des Arts

Brussels: Hopes of being another Berlin

Staff for tech start-ups are easy to find but hiring is costly

Washington DC: where wonks meet nerds

The heart of US politics is alert to the influence of technology

Tokyo — a hive of ideas

This city likes innovation, but start-up backing remains weak

Cairo: a concentration of Egyptian talent

Emerging tech start-up scene is starting to attract investors

Hong Kong: The start-up landscape

Skilled workers and good overseas transport links attract talent

Bucharest, Romania: Upbeat after success

City is upbeat after success of local technology companies

Tallinn, Estonia old city view.

Tallinn: Baltic city’s digital ambitions

Backers and founders eye the first home of Skype and TransferWise

Montreal Skyline

Montreal’s start-up hub ambitions

The multilingual city’s growing ecosystem for entrepreneurs

Copenhagen: A strong start-up community

Entrepreneurs must look abroad to scale up

Cork: role in Ireland’s tech aspirations

The city is ambitious, but dwarfed by the capital Dublin

Guadalajara: Mexico’s ‘Silicon Valley’

Networks, tech brains and hipster vibe help the city stand out

Melbourne: most liveable city turns to technology

A population boom and tax change are set to boost start-ups

Welsh capital Cardiff’s sporting chance

Made for sports and health focused tech start-ups

Austin: a business-friendly attitude

Quality of life and low costs attract tech start-ups

Vancouver: west coast powerhouse

Three of Canada’s ‘unicorn’ companies were launched in the city

Chicago: big city thinking, smaller rents

The tech scene is blossoming in this vast, cultured metropolis

Exeter: work-life balance for founders

The university has an ambitious spinout programme

Bournemouth: beach resort’s digital push

Creative base draws tech start-ups but access to funds is tight

Miami: US gateway for Latin America

Start-ups drawn by chance to tap into Spanish speaking community

Newcastle: lively centre of innovation

The city has diversified from its heavy industrial past

Amsterdam: modern-day refuge for the start-up crowd

Open-minded and a can-do approach: tech start-ups drawn here include Uber

Budapest: lively start-up ecosystem

Hungarian capital benefits from a legacy of science education

Bristol: Riverside city famed for creativity

The city’s liveability is a draw for start-ups’ staff, who relish the affordability compared with London

Manila: an Asian hub

English-speaking and social media-savvy capital

Dubai: the statelet start-up

Well-connected emirate is attracting big tech and small start-ups

Dublin: the tiger’s roaring tech hub

Low taxes and links with the US have encouraged growth

Nairobi: Silicon Savannah springs to life

Mobile phone money transfers and social media drive growth

Jakarta: ripe for a tech start-up take-off

Ventures so far are relatively small, but the potential is big

Glasgow: a start-up hotspot

The city aims to build on the energy from the Commonwealth Games

Hamburg: Germany’s start-up alternative

The city offers youthful technological dynamism

Birmingham: From steam to tech

Industrial heritage and low property prices are helping to put the city on the map

São Paulo: a start-up ecosystem for Brazil

The city is host to founders from new to established

Barcelona: sun, sea and start-ups

The city draws tourists and wants founders to stay

Buffalo: NY State’s other start-up base

Government aid offered and a favourable cost of living

Entrepreneurial nous rediscovered

Liverpool has cosmopolitan buzz and ambition

Southeast Asia’s tech city state

Singapore offers start-ups an enviable infrastructure

Medellín miracle reflects image revamp

Colombian city moves away from drugs to encouraging entrepreneurs

Sydney offers sun, sea and enthusiasm

Australia’s cosmopolitan city is seen as a natural base

Zurich: low on tax, high on risk-aversion

Switzerland’s biggest city is known for efficiency and boasts a wealth of skilled workers