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Last updated: July 2, 2007 8:06 am

Timeline: Three decades of terror

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June 30, 2007 - A four-wheel-drive car explodes into flames in Glasgow airport after it crashes into the main terminal. Five people are slightly injured. Two men are arrested at the airport after the attack.

June 29, 2007 - Police defuse potential bombs in two cars in central London.

April 11 2007 - Twin suicide bombings in Algiers, claimed by a local group calling itself al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, kill 33 people and injure scores more.

April 10 2007 - Three suicide bombers blow themselves up in Casablanca.

April 26 2006. Two suicide bombers blow themselves up in Sinai near the Gaza border in Egypt. Their targets, peacekeepers from the multinational force and observers and Egyptian police, escape injury.

April 24 2006. Scores of people are injured and at least 24 killed in three separate explosions at the Egyptian resort of Dahab, an area popular with Europeans and Israelis. The attacks are blamed on a Sinai desert-based group of extremists and appear to follow an organised pattern in Sinai.

April 23 2006. Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden warns in an audiotape broadcast on al Jazeera, the Arabic satellite television network, that the West should not send UN forces to Darfur in Sudan. He cites Western efforts to isolate the Palestinian Authority since the Islamist group Hamas won January elections as evidence of an alleged anti-Muslim campaign.

November 9 2005. Four Iraqi bombers, including a husband and wife team, attack the Radisson and Grand Hyatt hotels and the Days Inn in Amman, Jordan. The attacks killed at least 57 people. Abu Musab Zarqawi, the alleged leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, claims responsibility.

July 23 2005. At least 64 people were killed in a string of three bombings at the Red Sea resort Sharm al-Sheikh in Egypt.

July 21 2005. Four attempted bombings spread fear in London exactly two weeks after the deadly July 7 attacks, but none of the devices, again on three underground trains and one bus, exploded. In April 2006 the five accused men deny conspiracy to murder and cause explosions. Their trial is set for October 2006.

July 7 2005. Four British suicide bombers hit London’s public transport system in co-ordinated attacks, killing 52 and injuring 700. Three bombs go off on underground trains and a fourth is detonated on a bus an hour later.

December 6 2004. Terrorist organisation al-Qaeda claims responsibility for an attack on the US Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in which five attackers use explosives to break through the fortified entrance and shoot their way into the compound, killing five and injuring nine.

October 7 2004. In Taba, Egypt, Islamic militants drive a car filled with explosives into the lobby of a Hilton Hotel, killing 34 and wounding 159 others. Egyptian authorities identified a Palestinian and an Egyptian as the perpetrators.

June 12 2004. Militants abduct Paul Johnson, a US contractor in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On June 19, graphic pictures of his body are posted on an Islamist website. The kidnappers, who who claim to be al-Qaeda members, behead their victim after their demand to release prisoners arrested in Saudi Arabia for links to radical Muslim groups are not met.

March 11 2004. Four explosions blow up commuter trains in Madrid, killing 190 people. The Spanish government initially blames the Basque separatist group, Eta, but subsequent evidence points to an attack by Islamist terrorists. The Abu Hafz al-Masri Brigades, said to be a division of al-Qaeda, claims responsibility in retaliation for Spain's involvement in the US-led war in Iraq.

November 20 2003. Two suicide car bombings against Turkish headquarters of HSBC bank and British Consulate in Istanbul, result in the deaths of 27 people, including the British Consul and his personal assistant. al-Qaeda and a local Islamist group claim responsibility.

November 15 2003. Turkish Islamists kill 24 people in truck bombings against two synagogues in Istanbul.  Although the attacks target the Beir Israel and Neve Shalom temples, most of the victims are Muslim passers-by. The bombings are claimed by al-Qaeda and a local Islamist group.

November 10 2003. US supreme court announces it will hear the appeals of several British, Australian and Kuwaiti citizens held with more than 600 others after US anti-terror sweeps in Afghanistan. At issue is whether US courts have jurisdiction to hear challenges by the detainees to their imprisonment.

November 9 2003. Suicide car bomb attack on a residential compound in the Saudi capital, Riyadh, kills 17 people, mostly Arab expatriates.

October 29 2003. Ten men, held without trial in the UK for almost two years under controversial anti-terror laws, lose their appeal against detention. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission decided there were "reasonable grounds" for suspecting the detained individuals had links with terrorism.

October 29 2003. Delhi appeals court overturns the conviction of S.A.R. Geelani, a Muslim professor at Delhi University, who had been sentenced to death for his alleged role in  orchestrating a suicide terrorist attack on India's parliament two years earlier.

October 2 2003. Court in Indonesia sentences Mukhlas, alleged Jemaah Islamiah operations chief, and third key suspect in Bali bomb trial, to death.

October 2 2003. A federal judge rules that US government prosecutors cannot seek the death penalty against Zacarias Moussaoui, the man accused of conspiring with al-Qaeda in the September 11 terrorist attacks.

September 30 2003. A Belgian court sentences 18 Islamic militants, ending a four-month trial that highlighted the depth and diversity of al-Qaeda's terrorist network at the heart of Europe. Nizar Trabelsi, a former professional soccer player, receives the maximum sentence for his crimes under Belgian law of 10 years in prison after he admitting to preparing a suicide attack on a US air base at Kleine Brogel, near the Dutch border.

September 18 2003.  Ali Imron, fourth Bali bombing suspect, sentenced to life in jail.

September 11 2003. Americans hold a day of prayer and remembrance to mark the second anniversary of the September 11 attacks, which killed nearly 3,000 people. A ceremony at Ground Zero in New York features children who lost parents in the attack reading out the victims' names.

September 10 2003. On the eve of the second anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks, Arabic-language TV network Al-Jazeera broadcasts what it claims is a new tape of Osama bin Laden and his top deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, encouraging new attacks against Americans. Meanwhile, Abdul Aziz, a 33-year-old Indonesian computer expert, is sentenced to death for organising the Bali bomb attacks.

September 10 2003. Bali court sentences Imam Samudra, alleged ground commander of Bali attack to death.

August 19 2003.  The Brigades of the Martyr Abu Hafz al-Masri, said to be a division of al-Qaeda, claims responsibility for a massive truck bomb which devastates the Baghdad headquarters of the UN, killing Sergio Vieira de Mello, the top UN envoy to Iraq, and 21 others.

August 7 2003. Amrozi bin Nurhasyim is found guilty of conspiring, planning and carrying out terrorist bombings on the Indonesian resort island of Bali. Known as the "smiling bomber", he is sentenced to death by firing squad.

August 5 2003. A huge bomb kills 10 people and wounds 150 at the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta. Matori Abdul Djalil, Indonesian defence minister blames the militant group Jema’ah Islamiyah.

July 31 2003.  Wan Min Wan Mat, alleged Jema'ah Islamiah treasurer, tells Bali court part of group's funding came from al-Qaeda, providing link between the two organisations.

June 7 2003. A suicide car bomber blows up a bus full of German peacekeepers east of the Afghan capital Kabul, killing four and wounding 31. Peter Struck, German defence minister, blames al Qaeda.

May 16 2003. Suicide bombers attack a Spanish restaurant, a five-star hotel and a Jewish community centre in Casablanca, killing 45 people, including 12 bombers.  Members of a Morrocan organisation known as the Salafist Jihad, which has indirect links to al Qaeda, are later found guilty of co-ordinating the attacks.

May 12 2003. Suicide bombers in vehicles shoot their way into housing compounds for expatriates in Saudi capital, Riyadh, killing 35, including nine Americans. Colin Powell, US secretary of state, blames al-Qaeda.

April 30 2003. Six men suspected of links with Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network are seized in a raid in the Pakistani city of Karachi. The Pakistani interior ministry said they had been planning major acts of terrorism in the country.

March 6 2003. Top Central Intelligence Agency officials arrive in Pakistan as evidence mounts that Osama bin Laden is hiding in an area concentrated around Gwadar, a port in the south.

March 1 2003. Khaled Sheikh Mohammed, al-Qaeda's third-ranking officer and the self-confessed planner of the September 11 attacks in the US, is arrested in Pakistan and interrogated by US and Pakistani officials.

February 19 2003. Mounir al-Motassadeq, a Moroccan student, is sentenced to 15 years in prison by a Hamburg court for being an accessory to murder in 3,066 cases - the number of people known to have died in the September 11 2001 attacks on New York and Washington. He is also found guilty of membership of a terrorist organisation.

February 11 2003. Osama bin Laden broadcasts a "call to arms" for Muslims to rise up against the US and its allies in his first public statement in more than four months. Washington takes references to Baghdad as proof that some links exist between Iraq and al-Qaeda.

January 5 2003. UK anti-terrorist police find the deadly poison ricin in a London flat. Seven north Africans are arrested.

December 16 2002. French anti-terrorist police arrest nine north African men in a series of raids in northern Paris. Evidence that they were developing chemical weapons - using cyanide - is discovered.

November 28 2002. Two attacks are launched against Israeli targets in Mombasa, Kenya. A hotel blast kills 16 - including the three suicide car bombers - and a missile is fired but misses an Israeli plane. Al-Qaeda is believed responsible.

November 5 2002. A US missile attack fired from an unmanned Predator aircraft inside Yemen kills six alleged al-Qaeda members, including Ali Qaed Senyan al-Harthi, whom the US has linked to the attack on the warship USS Cole off Aden in October 2000.

October 12 2002. Three bombs explode on the Indonesian resort island of Bali, killing nearly 200 people, mostly foreign tourists. Investigators blame the Jemaah Islamiyah, a southeast Asian terrorist group with ties to al-Qaeda.

October 6 2002. A French-registered oil tanker, Limburg, is damaged by explosives while sailing off the coast of Yemen. Al-Qaeda is suspected.

October 4 2002. A US court sentences John Walker Lindh, the so-called 'American Taleban', to 20 years in jail for fighting for the ousted regime in Afghanistan. US law enforcement officers charge four men with waging war against the US and supporting al-Qaeda.

August 28 2002. Mounir al-Motassadek, a 28-year-old Moroccan living in Germany, becomes the second person to be charged in relation with the 11 September attacks. He is charged with more than 3,000 counts of accessory to murder and belonging to a terrorist group.

July 26 2002. The US House of Representatives approves the creation of a Department of Homeland Security. The agency is responsible for guarding US borders, protecting potential targets such as the transportation system and overseeing the recovery from future attacks.

July 24 2002. The US House of Representatives approves a massive increase in intelligence gathering spending. The 2003 fiscal intelligence authorisation bill adds up to $35bn, to cover funds for the CIA, the National Security Agency, several Pentagon departments, and the Departments of State, Justice and Energy.

June 26 2002. A bill is passed in the US House of Representatives that will make it easier for federal agencies to share information about terrorism. The legislation makes co-ordination between the FBI and CIA a legal requirement.

June 11 2002. US authorities say they thwarted a plot by al-Qaeda to attack the country by detonating a radioactive 'dirty bomb' . The alleged bomber Abdullah al-Muhajir, also known as Jose Padilla, was arrested on 8 May at Chicago airport after arriving from Pakistan.

May 14 2002. President Bush signs a new immigration bill aimed at making it more difficult for terror suspects to enter the country. Recommendations include increased border checks and closer monitoring of foreign students. All passports issued after 2003 must now contain fingerprints or facial recognition technology.

April 11 2002. A lorry laden with dynamite and gas cylinders explodes at a synagogue on the Tunisian Island of Djerba, killing 17 people - 11 German tourists, five Tunisians and a Frenchman. German officials blame al-Qaeda and trace planning of the attack to Khaled Sheikh Mohammed, a senior al-Qaeda planner.

December 23 2001. Richard Reid, the so-called shoe bomber, is arrested on a flight from Paris to Miami. He allegedly had explosives hidden in his shoes.

December 14 2001. US Government releases a video which it says proves that Osama bin Laden masterminded the 11 September attacks. Indonesia acknowledges ties between local Islamic groups and Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaeda network.

December 12 2001. Zacarias Moussaoui is the first to be charged in connection with the 11 September attacks.

November 28 2001. Mounir El Motassadeq, charged with serving as an accessory to 3,044 murders in New York and Washington D.C. and with belonging to Hamburg al-Qaeda cell, is accused of masterminding the September 11 attacks. His trial, the first against a suspected 9/11 conspirator, begins in Hamburg in October 2002.

November 7 2001. US Government freezes the assets of financial networks alleged to be linked to Osama bin Laden, bringing to 62 the number of groups and people added to a list of suspected terrorist associates.

October 24 2001. US Congress approves anti-terrorism legislation that gives law enforcement agencies sweeping new powers to monitor and detain suspected terrorists.

October 7 2001. US and British forces begin air strikes against targets in Afghanistan.

October 5 2001. Robert Stevens, 63, dies in Palm Beach, Florida, after contracting pulmonary anthrax. Anthrax attacks kill five people and leave 17 seriously ill. Suggestions that Iraq or al-Qaeda might be responsible, are eventually discounted.

September 24 2001. The US authorities freeze the assets of 27 groups and individuals, many of them Islamic charities, alleged to be funding terrorist organisations.

September 14 2001. The FBI reveals the identities of the 19 alleged hijackers and launches the biggest investigation in its history. US Attorney-General John Ashcroft says that all roads in the investigation lead to Saudi-born dissident Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda organisation.

September 11 2001. Two hijacked airliners crash into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre. Soon after, the Pentagon is struck by a third hijacked plane. A fourth hijacked plane, suspected to be bound for a high-profile target in Washington, crashes into a field in southern Pennsylvania. More than 5,000 US citizens and other nationals are killed as a result of these acts.

December 30 2000. A bomb explodes in a plaza across the street from the US embassy in Manila, injuring nine people. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front is thought to be responsible.

October 12 2000. In Aden, Yemen, a small dingy carrying explosives rams the destroyer USS Cole, killing 17 sailors and injuring 39 others. Supporters of al-Qaeda are suspected.

December 14 1999. Ahmed Rezzam, an al-Qaeda operative based in Canada, is arrested as he crosses into the US near Seattle, when a bomb is found in his car. He admits he planned to detonate the bomb at Los Angeles airport on the millenium.

October 18 1998. A National Liberation Army (ELN) planted bomb explodes on the Ocensa pipeline in Antioquia Department, Colombia, killing about 71 people and injuring at least 100 others.

August 15 1998. A 500-pound car bomb planted by the Real IRA explodes in Omagh, Northern Ireland, killing 29 people and injuring more than 330.

August 7 1998. A bomb explodes at the rear entrance of the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, killing 247 Kenyans, 12 US citizens, and 32 Foreign Service Nationals (FSNs). About 5,000 Kenyans, six US citizens, and 13 FSNs are injured. Almost simultaneously, a bomb is detonated outside the US embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing seven FSNs and three Tanzanian citizens. The U.S. Government holds Osama bin Ladin responsible.

November 17 1997. Al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya (IG) gunmen shoot and kill 58 tourists and four Egyptians and wounding 26 others at the Hatshepsut Temple in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor.

September 4 1997. Three suicide bombers of Hamas detonated bombs in the Ben Yehuda shopping mall in Jerusalem, killing eight people, including the bombers, and wounding nearly 200 others.

December 3 1996. A bomb explodes aboard a Paris subway train as it arrives at the Port Royal station, killing two French nationals, a Moroccan, and a Canadian, and injuring 86 people. No one claims responsibility for the attack, but Algerian extremists are suspected.

August 1 1996. A bomb exploded at the home of the French Archbishop of Oran, killing him and his chauffeur. The attack occurred after the Archbishop's meeting with the French Foreign Minister. The Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA) is suspected.

June 25 1996. A fuel truck carrying a bomb explodes outside the US military's Khobar Towers housing facility in Dhahran, killing 19 US military personnel and wounding 515 people, including 240 US personnel. Several groups claim responsibility for the attack.

June 15 1996. IRA truck bomb detonated at a Manchester, UK, shopping center, wounding 206 people, and caused extensive property damage.

March 4 1996. Dizengoff Center Bombing. Hamas and the Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) both claim responsibility for a bombing outside of Tel Aviv's largest shopping mall that kills 20 persons and injuring 75 others.

February 26 1996. In Jerusalem, a suicide bomber blews up a bus, killing 26 people, including three US citizens, and injuring 80 others.

January 31 1996. Members of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rammed an explosives-laden truck into the Central Bank in the heart of downtown Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing 90 civilians and injuring more than 1,400 others.

November 19 1995. A suicide bomber drove a vehicle into the Egyptian Embassy compound in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing at least 16 and injuring 60 people. Three militant Islamic groups claimed responsibility.

April 19 1995. Right-wing extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols destroy the Federal Building in Oklahoma City with a massive truck bomb that kills 166 and injurs hundreds more in what is then the largest terrorist attack on American soil.

March 20 1995. Twelve people are killed, and 5,700 injured in a Sarin nerve gas attack on a crowded subway station in the center of Tokyo, Japan. A similar attack occurrs almost simultaneously in the Yokohama subway system. The Aum Shinri-kyu cult is blamed for the attacks.

February 25 1994. Jewish right-wing extremist and US citizen Baruch Goldstein machine-gun Moslem worshippers at a mosque in West Bank town of Hebron, killing 29 and wounding about 150.

April 14 1993. The Iraqi intelligence service attempts to assassinate former US President George Bush during a visit to Kuwait. In retaliation, the US launches a cruise missile attack 2 months later on the Iraqi capital Baghdad.

February 26 1993. The World Trade Center in New York City is badly damaged when a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists explodes in an underground garage.

December 21 1988. Pan Am flight 103 is blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, by a bomb believed to have been placed on the aircraft in Frankfurt, West Germany, by Libyan terrorists. All 259 people on board are killed.

November 29 1987. North Korean agents plant a bomb aboard Korean Air Lines Flight 858, which subsequently crashes into the Indian Ocean.

April 5 1986. Two US soldiers are killed, and 79 American servicemen injured in a Libyan bomb attack on a nightclub in West Berlin, West Germany. In retaliation, US military jets bomb targets in and around Tripoli and Benghazi.

June 23 1985. A bomb destroys an Air India Boeing 747 over the Atlantic, killing all 329 people aboard. Both Sikh and Kashmiri terrorists are blamed for the attack. Two cargo handlers are killed at Tokyo airport, Japan, when another Sikh bomb explodes in an Air Canada aircraft en route to India.

12 April 1984. Eighteen US servicemen are killed and 83 people injured in a bomb attack on a restaurant near a US Air Force Base in Torrejón, Spain. Responsibility is claimed by Hizbollah.

October 23 1983. Simultaneous suicide truck-bomb attacks are made on American and French compounds in Beirut, Lebanon. A 12,000-pound bomb destroys the US compound, killing 242 Americans, while 58 French troops are killed when a 400-pound device destroys a French base. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.

October 9 1983. North Korean Hit Squad blows up a delegation from South Korea in Rangoon, Burma, killing 21 people and injuring 48.

April 18 1983. Sixty-three people, including the CIA's Middle East director, are killed, and 120 injured in a 400-pound suicide truck-bomb attack on the US Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. The Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.

October 6 1981. Soldiers who are secretly members of the Tak fir Wal-Hajira sect attack and kill Egyptian President Anwar Sadat during a troop review.

November 20 1979. Two hundred Islamic terrorists seize the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, taking hundreds of pilgrims hostage. Saudi and French security forces retake the shrine after an intense battle in which 250 people are killed and 600 wounded.

March 16 1978. Italian premier Aldo Moro is seized by the Red Brigade and assassinated 55 days later.

September 5 1972. Eight Palestinian "Black September" terrorists seize 11 Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany. In a bungled rescue attempt by West German authorities, nine of the hostages and five terrorists are killed.

July 21 1972. Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb attacks kill 11 people and injures 130 in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Ten days later, three IRA car bomb attacks in the village of Claudy leave six dead.

Sources: US Department of State; BBC; ERRI; Reuters;

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